Organisation de la SST : nouveautés 07/2018

preventionCe mois-ci, nous vous présentons des publications sur différents aspects de la formation en SST : un document particulièrement intéressant est le guide de l’Institute for Work & Health sur comment (et pourquoi!) enchâsser des éléments de compétences essentielles dans la formation en SST. D’autres documents intéressants concernent la gestion du changement, le rôle du gestionnaire dans la prévention des risques dans les PME, ainsi que le rôle d’une communauté de pratique dans la prévention en soins à domicile.  Enfin, plusieurs documents portent sur des statistiques (accidents, fatalités, erreurs évitées de justesse) ainsi que des outils servant à mesurer, cartographier ou évaluer différents aspects de la SST.

Accès aux documents : Les documents sans icône sont disponibles en accès ouvert.

ressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)Les documents comportant une icône bleue proviennent de ressources pour lesquelles l’ASSTSAS ou la CNESST ont un abonnement.

Les documents comportant une icône noire sont disponibles auprès de l’éditeur Ressource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)ou par prêt entre bibliothèques.

Accéder aux titres par sujet :
Communication en SST
Formation en SST
Gestion du changement
Gestion et leadership
Participation et consultation du milieu
Politiques, pratiques et procédures
Statistiques et outils d’analyse

Communication en SST

Better Safety Conversations
Source : OSHA, 2018

The core elements of an effective safety and health program — management leadership, worker participation, and a proactive approach to finding and fixing hazards — depend on good communication skills, real listening, clear speech, and well-run meetings. This is where effective safety conversations come in – and where your role as a supervisor is key. The example  you set, and the way you talk to workers about safety, has a huge impact on the company’s safety and health program, safety culture, and ability to reduce injury and  illness. In this document, you will learn: The basics of good safety conversations; Tips for holding different types of safety conversations and making them more effective; Ways to overcome common reasons people avoid safety conversations; The power of stories to enhance your safety conversations; The importance of leading by example—“walking the walk” when it comes to workplace safety and health.

La communication des risques à la santé
La communication des risques à la santé – résumé
Source : INSPQ, mai 2018

Ce document s’appuie sur des ouvrages phares en communication des risques à la santé, mais aussi sur l’expérience et l’expertise d’acteurs de santé publique. Il s’adresse principalement aux professionnels, aux médecins et aux gestionnaires qui évaluent et gèrent des risques en santé environnementale, santé au travail et maladies infectieuses. L’outil traite des risques significatifs à la santé, qu’ils se manifestent par des effets aigus ou chroniques. En collaboration avec les services de communication, les acteurs de santé publique jouent un rôle déterminant pour communiquer le risque aux partenaires et à la population. Communiquer l’information juste et pertinente au moment opportun, comprendre les différences de perceptions, établir une communication bidirectionnelle respectueuse et basée sur la confiance, ainsi qu’adapter la stratégie de communication aux publics cibles et à la situation sont autant de principes à intégrer dans l’évaluation et la gestion des risques. Notons que la communication s’exerce tout au long du processus d’évaluation et de gestion des risques.

Formation en SST

Essential Skills and OHS Training : a guide to embedding an essential skills curriculum within an OHS training program
Source : Institute for Work & Health, avril 2018

This guide provides an overview of the process involved in modifying the curriculum of an existing occupational health and safety (OHS) training program in order to address gaps in essential skills among worker trainees. Essential skills are the foundation for learning all other skills, and include reading, writing, numeracy, document use and more.  The guide is designed to be used by OHS organizations that deliver training programs to groups with relatively low levels of essential skills. Applicable across a range of industries and training organizations of all sizes, the guide may be helpful to instructional designers, subject-matter experts and instructors involved in the design and delivery of OHS training programs. The guide includes a 12-step process for embedding an essential skills curriculum into an existing program. It includes practical tips and suggestions for going beyond.

Exploring the potential of a multi-level approach to improve capability for continuous organizational improvement and learning in a Swedish healthcare region
Source : BMC Health Services Research 18, mai 2018

Eldercare and care of people with functional impairments is organized by the municipalities in Sweden. Improving care in these areas is complex, with multiple stakeholders and organizations. Appropriate strategies to develop capability for continuing organizational improvement and learning (COIL) are needed. The purpose of our study was to develop and pilot-test a flexible, multilevel approach for COIL capability building and to identify what it takes to achieve changes in key actors’ approaches to COIL. The approach, named “Sustainable Improvement and Development through Strategic and Systematic Approaches” (SIDSSA), was applied through an action-research and action-learning intervention.

Knowledge and practice of waste management among hospital cleaners91px-Lock-blue.svg
Source : Occupational Medicine, juin 2018

This study aimed to assess private hospital cleaners’ knowledge and practice of hospital waste management and the association with training. A structured questionnaire, designed to  assess knowledge, self-reported practice and training, was administered to private hospital cleaners in Etiosa in Nigeria. 81% reported that they had received training. 49% had good knowledge, while 90% self-reported good practice. Statistical analysis showed a significant negative association between training and knowledge. This may be related to the nature of training. The study found a knowledge gap, exposing these hospital cleaners to occupational risks which appropriate training has the potential to prevent. Collaboration to produce effective training programmes is recommended.

The effect of active and passive occupational health and safety (OHS) training on OHS awareness and empowerment to participate in injury prevention among workers in Ontario and British Columbia (Canada)
Source : Safety Science 108, octobre 2018

This study investigated whether differences in methods of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) awareness training result in differences in worker awareness of rights and responsibilities and worker empowerment to participate in injury prevention. Exposure to OHS awareness training is associated with higher OHS awareness among workers in a broad range of occupations. Mode of training is important, with more active training associated with stronger impacts on awareness than passive training methods.

The integration of safety and health into education : an empirical study of good-practice examples on www.enetosh.net
Source : Deutsche Gesetzliche Unfallversicherung e. V. (DGUV), avril 2018

Cette étude contribue à montrer comment s’effectue dans la pratique l’intégration des enjeux de la sécurité et de la santé dans les processus d’éducation et d’apprentissage aux différents niveaux du système éducatif (éducation préscolaire/scolaire, formation professionnelle initiale, enseignement supérieur et éducation et formation dans le milieu professionnel). L’étude facilite l’accès aux exemples de bonne pratique, identifie les bons modèles et donne des conseils pour l’action future des praticiens, des multiplicateurs et des décideurs.

 

Gestion du changement

Conceptual frameworks for the workplace change adoption process: elements integration from decision making and learning cycle process
Source : Ergonomics, Prépublication, mai 2018

Adoption and acceptance of workplace changes may be facilitated through sound implementation strategies. This manuscript explores several principles of sense-making and decision-making processes that can potentially be used by industrial practitioners to inform the design and development of implementation strategies for interventions that improve workplace ergonomics and safety.

Gestion et leadership

Human health and social work: care provision for adults and children, dental and other clinical provision, and provision of training and activities
Source : Safety and health in micro and small enterprises in the EU: the view from the workplace: European risk observatory report Publications Office of the European Union, 2018

Ce chapitre présente 19 études de cas realisées dans le secteur de la santé et des services sociaux, dans le cadre d’une étude plus large sur la compréhension et des expériences en matière de SST de petites entreprises et de micro-entreprises dans 9 pays de l’UE. Les entreprises participantes provenaient de différents sous-secteurs : soins de jour aux enfants ou aux adultes, cliniques dentaire ou médical, centre d’activités ou de formation. L’orientation axé sur les clients dans ce secteur se reflète à la fois dans la gestion de la SST et sur la nature des risques (violence, implication émotionnelle, horaires de travail). Le contrôle des risques était fortement tributaire des structures financière et de gestion des entreprises et du propriétaire-gestionnaire. Plusieurs propriétaires avaient développé des compétences qui leur permettaient d’écouter leurs employés et de détecter des risques psychosociaux. Enfin, la principale leçon à apprendre dans ce secteur est de prendre appui sur la conscience et l’attention porté sur la sécurité et le bien-être des patients et de l’élargir pour comprendre les dispositifs pour la sécurité, la santé et le bien-être des travailleurs.

 

Perspectives in healthcare safety
Source : AOHP Journal 38(2), 2018

High-reliability organizations are those who strive to create the safest and most effective operations. They then constantly re-assess these operations for any semblance of the possibility of failure so that concerns can be resolved before an incident occurs, including near-miss events. This article presents the concept of high-reliability, in principle and in practice.

 

Participation et consultation du milieu

Protecting workers in the home care industry: workers’ experienced job demands, resource gaps, and benefits following a socially supportive interventionRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Home Health Care Services Quarterly, mai 2018

The Community of Practice and Safety Support (COMPASS) program is a peer-led group intervention for home care workers. In a randomized controlled trial, COMPASS significantly improved workers’ professional support networks and safety and health behaviors. However, quantitative findings failed to capture workers’ complex emotional, physical, and social experiences with job demands, resource limitations, and the intervention itself. Therefore, we conducted qualitative follow-up interviews with a sample of participants (n = 28) in the program. Results provided examples of unique physical and psychological demands, revealed stressful resource limitations (e.g., safety equipment access), and elucidated COMPASS’s role as a valuable resource.

Politiques, pratiques et procédures

Advancing a strong safety culture in Newfoundland and Labrador: A Workplace Injury Prevention Strategy 2018-2022
Source : WorkplaceNL; OHS Division, 2018

This prevention strategy, developed in consultation with injury prevention partners and stakeholders, represents an opportunity for everyone to help protect workers from hazards in the workplace. WorkplaceNL and the OHS Division share the common philosophy that all workplace injuries and illnesses can be prevented—and that every worker has the right to go home safely at the end of the day. Priorities include musculoskeletal injuries; occupational disease and illness; falls; serious injuries; young workers; workplace violence; traffic control; psychological health and safety.

 

The relationship between organizational policies and practices and work limitations among hospital patient care workers91px-Lock-blue.svg
Source : American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Prépublication, mai 2018

We examined relationships between organizational policies and practices (OPPs) (safety practices, ergonomic practices, and people-oriented culture) and work limitations in a sample of hospital workers. As the unit-average ergonomic practice score increased by one, the odds of a worker reporting work limitations decreased by approximately 39%, adjusted for job title, age, and body mass index. A similar relationship existed for people-oriented culture. The association between safety practices and work limitations was similar, but not statistically significant. This study demonstrated the importance of workplace OPPs. OPPs that promote positive and supportive environments and that foster improvements in ergonomics may help reduce work limitations.

Statistiques et outils d’analyse

2018 Report on work fatality and injury rates in Canada
Source : University of Regina, avril 2018

Canadian workers compensation boards reported that 904 workers died due to work-related causes in 2016. This report provides a jurisdictional comparison of work-related fatality rates in Canada between 2011 to 2016 using data from the Association of Workers’ Compensation Boards of Canada (AWCBC). A comparison of fatality rates is important for identifying trends over time both within and between provinces and territories. Job-related fatalities are classified as injury (e.g., death due to job-related electrocution) or occupational disease related (e.g., death from mesothelioma due to work-related exposure to asbestos).

 

Characteristics and determinants of recurrent occupational accidents
Source : Safety Science 108, octobre 2018

Recurrent occupational accidents provide valuable information for prevention purposes. Characteristics of recurrent occupational accidents were studied using a dataset of a Finnish insurance company. Working process and characteristics of the first accident affected the reoccurrence. In services, the violence-related accidents reoccurred for every second subject but losing control of machine only for every eighth subject. Moreover, the latter accidents were more severe than the former accidents. On average, two times more days were lost in the second than in the first accident. Compared to age-matched controls with only one occupational accident, the subjects with at least two accidents were 3.2 times more likely to exercise less frequently, 3.2 times more likely to have relatives with diabetes and 2.6 times more likely to have symptoms of health problems. The substantial reoccurrence of occupational accidents emphasizes the importance of assessing the prevention policies after each accident. Occupational accidents are related to work conditions and organizational practices but analysis of more in-depth data e.g. questionnaires may promote the means to improve prevention policies.

 

Design and construction of an Unintentional Injury Risk Index (UIRI) to measure frequency and severity of accidental injuries in Europe91px-Lock-blue.svg
Source : International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, Prépublication, mai 2018

To design coherent programmes aimed at reducing risk of accidental injury, it is necessary to measure the magnitude of this phenomenon with its changing meaning –from random misfortune to foreseeable and preventable risk. In order to calculate the total volume of accidental injuries in Europe, we have designed an adequate measurement instrument: the Unintentional Injury Risk Index (UIRI) counts both the probability (incidence) and the consequences (severity) of injuries. The index calculated for EU countries in 2009 revealed that accidents caused injuries and suffering equivalent to 96.4 deaths per 100,000 population. Based on the index, other specific indices can be calculated, such as personal proneness, country risk or site hazard indices, useful for deepening knowledge on the risk factors for unintentional injuries.

Development of a Coding and Crosswalk Tool for Occupations and Industries91px-Lock-blue.svg
Source : Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 2018

Job coding into a standard occupation or industry classification is commonly performed in occupational epidemiology and occupational health. Sometimes, it is necessary to code jobs into multiple classifications or to convert job codes from one classification to another. We developed a generic tool, called CAPS-Canada (http://www.caps-canada.ca/), that combines a computer-assisted coding tool covering seven International, Canadian and US occupation and industry classifications and an assistant facilitating crosswalks from one classification to another. The objectives of this paper are to present the different functions of the CAPS-Canada tool and to assess their contribution through an inter-rater reliability study.

Development of and Selected Performance Characteristics of CANJEM, a General Population Job-Exposure Matrix Based on Past Expert Assessments of Exposure91px-Lock-blue.svg
Source : Annals of Work Exposures and Health, juin 2018

We developed a job-exposure matrix called CANJEM using data generated in population-based case–control studies of cancer. This article describes some of the decisions in developing CANJEM, and some of its performance characteristics. CANJEM provides good coverage of the Canadian working population and possibly that of several other countries. Available in several occupation classification systems and including 258 agents, CANJEM can be used to support exposure assessment efforts in epidemiology and prevention of occupational diseases.

Enhancing the detection of injuries and near-misses among patient care staff in a large pediatric hospital91px-Lock-blue.svg
Source : Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, Prépublication, 2018

Compared to other industries, healthcare has one of the highest rates of non-fatal occupational injury/illness. Evidence indicates these rates are underestimated, highlighting the need for improved injury surveillance. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating active data collection in a passive injury surveillance system to improve detection of injuries in a healthcare establishment. Injuries reported using DVR during two-week intervals from February 2014 to July 2015 were 40.7 times more frequent than what would be expected on the basis of the usual ISS reports. Psychological injuries (eg, stress, conflict) and near-misses were also better captured, and a majority of participants preferred using DVR either as an alternative or complement to the existing ISS. This study showed that it is feasible to improve injury surveillance by integrating active data collection. Enhanced surveillance provides richer information that can guide the development of effective injury prevention strategies.

Interventions Developed with the Intervention Mapping Protocol in Work Disability Prevention: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Source : Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, juin 2018

Purposes Intervention mapping (IM) is a protocol for developing effective behavior change interventions. It has been used for 10 years to develop work disability prevention (WDP) interventions, but it is not known to what extent and with what success. The main objective of this study was to review the effectiveness of these interventions. Secondary objectives were to review their fidelity to the IM protocol, their theoretical frameworks and their content. Results of a systematic review of the literature show that the IM protocol has been used in WDP since 2007. The participative dimension appears underused. Few theoretical frameworks were used. Implications are to better consider the stakeholders involvement, and mobilize theoretical frameworks with greater attempts to intervene on the work environment.

Safety climate and safety outcomes: A meta-analytic comparison of universal vs. industry-specific safety climate predictive validity
Source : Work & Stress, Prépublication, avril 2018

Safety climate is known to be a robust predictor of safety-related outcomes. However, there is little consensus about the optimal strategy to measure safety climate. One of the main issues has been whether safety climate measures should be universal or industry-specific. As such, this study was designed to examine the criterion-related validity of universal and industry-specific safety climate measures by conducting a meta-analytic comparison of their relationships with a variety of safety-related outcomes (i.e. safety behaviour, risk perceptions, accidents and injuries, and other adverse events). With 120 independent samples (N = 81,213), we found that the industry-specific safety climate measures displayed better predictive power when predicting safety behaviour and risk perceptions than the universal safety climate measures. On the other hand, the universal safety climate measures displayed better predictive power when predicting other adverse events (but not accidents and injuries) than the industry-specific safety climate measures. We discuss these findings in light of the intended use of organisational safety climate surveys.

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