Troubles musculosquelettiques : nouveautés 07/2018

Plusieurs nouveautés traitent de troubles musculosquelettiques. On porte un regard sur différents métiers (personnel infirmier, technologues en radiographie, prothésistes et orthésistes, personnel de bureau), sur les TMS en lien avec des équipements, dont les appareils mobiles et les fauteuils roulants sur différentes surfaces. Enfin, une étude porte sur l’impact du retour au travail sur les TMS et une autre examine le lien entre les TMS et les facteurs organisationnels et risques psychosociaux.

La majorité des documents sont en accès libre. Deux articles proviennent de revues auxquelles la CNESST est abonnée; c’est indiqué par le cadenas bleu à gauche du titre.


Ressource en vedette :

Application des pratiques préventives par les infirmières et infirmiers : la perspective innovante de la capacité d’absorption
Source : IRSST, juin 2018

Lors de cette conférence, Saliha Ziam, professeure à l’Université TÉLUQ, explique les facteurs qui influent sur le processus d’application des pratiques de prévention chez le personnel infirmier du réseau de la santé du Québec. Vous trouverez les diapositives et la vidéo de la présentation sur cette page.
D’autres contenus issus de la même recherche sont également accessibles, soit le rapport de recherche, la vidéo et le document de sensibilisation intitulés « Personnel infirmer et troubles musculosquelettiques, Comment favoriser l’application des pratiques préventives dans le milieu de travail?» et l’article TMS chez le personnel hospitalier : Qu’est-ce qui nuit à la prévention? dans Prévention au travail.


Armrests and back support reduced biomechanical loading in the neck and upper extremities during mobile phone use
Source : Applied Ergonomics 73, novembre 2018

Mobile phone use is known to be associated with musculoskeletal pain in the neck and upper extremities because of related physical risk factors, including awkward postures. A chair that provides adequate support (armrests and back support) may reduce biomechanical loading in the neck and shoulder regions. Therefore, we conducted a repeated-measures laboratory study with 20 participants to determine whether armrests and back support during mobile phone use reduced head/neck flexion, gravitational moment, and muscle activity in the neck and shoulder regions. The results showed that the chair support (armrests and back support) reduced head/neck flexion, gravitational moment, and muscle activity in the neck and shoulder regions significantly compared to no chair support. These results indicate that a chair with adequate support can be an effective intervention to reduce the biomechanical exposures and associated muscular pain in the neck and shoulders during mobile phone use.

Early Return to Work has Benefits for Relief of Back Pain and Functional Recovery after Controlling for Multiple Confounds
Source : Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Publish Ahead of Print, juin 2018

This study evaluated the effect on health outcomes of an early or immediate return-to-work (RTW) after acute low back pain (LBP), finding that pain and function improved more rapidly for workers with an immediate (30.7%) or early (1-7 days) RTW (36.8%). Eleven demographic, health, or workplace variables were identified as potential confounds, but controlling for these factors only partially attenuated the benefits of an early RTW. Conclusions: An early RTW improves acute LBP and functional recovery, and alternate confounding explanations only partially eclipse this therapeutic effect.

Facteurs organisationnels et psychosociaux associés aux contraintes posturales en milieu professionnel : résultats à partir de l’enquête Sumer 2010
Source : Bulletin épidémiologique hebdomadaire (12/13/2018), mai 2018

Parmi les contraintes biomécaniques associées aux troubles musculo-squelettiques (TMS), les contraintes posturales (CP) font partie des plus fréquemment observées chez les travailleurs. L’objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer les associations entre l’exposition à des facteurs organisationnels et psychosociaux et celle à au moins une CP ≥10 h par semaine dans la population salariée française. L’exposition à au moins une CP ≥10 h par semaine était relevée chez 14% des hommes et 12% des femmes. Les contraintes industrielles, les normes de production ainsi que le manque de flexibilité, la surveillance hiérarchique et la polyvalence des postes de travail étaient positivement associées à l’exposition à une CP, quel que soit le genre. De même, un environnement psychosocial délétère (faible soutien social, faibles utilisation et développement des compétences et forte demande psychologique) était associé à un risque accru d’exposition à une CP. Ces résultats suggèrent la nécessité de prendre en compte les dimensions organisationnelles et psychosociales, au-delà des facteurs biomécaniques et socioprofessionnels, dans la prévention des TMS en milieu professionnel.

Hand forces exerted by long-term care staff when pushing wheelchairs on compliant and non-compliant flooring
Source : Applied Ergonomics 71, septembre 2018

Purpose-designed compliant flooring and carpeting have been promoted as a means for reducing fall-related injuries in high-risk environments, such as long-term care. However, it is not known whether these surfaces influence the forces that long-term care staff exert when pushing residents in wheelchairs. We studied 14 direct-care staff who pushed a loaded wheelchair instrumented with a triaxial load cell to test the effects on hand force of flooring overlay (vinyl versus carpet) and flooring subfloor (concrete versus compliant rubber [brand: SmartCells]). During straight-line pushing, carpet overlay increased initial and sustained hand forces compared to vinyl overlay by 22–49% over a concrete subfloor and by 8–20% over a compliant subfloor. Compliant subflooring increased initial and sustained hand forces compared to concrete subflooring by 18–31% when under a vinyl overlay. In contrast, compliant flooring caused no change in initial or sustained hand forces compared to concrete subflooring when under a carpet overlay.

Visual and psychological stress during computer work in healthy, young females—physiological responses
Source : International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health , mai 2018

Among computer workers, visual complaints, and neck pain are highly prevalent. This study explores how occupational simulated stressors during computer work, like glare and psychosocial stress, affect physiological responses in young females with normal vision. The study was a within-subject laboratory experiment with a counterbalanced, repeated design. Forty-three females performed four 10-min computer-work sessions with different stress exposures: (1) minimal stress; (2) visual stress (direct glare); (3) psychological stress; and (4) combined visual and psychological stress. Psychological stress induced a transient increase in trapezius muscle activity and a more forward-bent posture. Bending forward towards the computer screen was correlated with higher productivity (reading speed), indicating a concentration or stress response. Forward bent posture was also associated with changes in fixation disparity. Furthermore, during computer work per se, trapezius muscle activity and blood flow, orbicularis oculi muscle blood flow, and heart rate were increased compared to rest.Exposure to glare and psychological stress during computer work were shown to influence the trapezius muscle, posture, and blink rate in young, healthy females with normal binocular vision, but in different ways. Accordingly, both visual and psychological factors must be taken into account when optimizing computer workstations to reduce physiological responses that may cause excessive eyestrain and musculoskeletal load.

Work-related ill-health in radiographers91px-Lock-blue.svg
Source : Occupational Medicine , mai 2018

This study aims to analyse the medically reported incidence of WRIs among radiographers in the UK between 1989 and 2015. Incident cases reported by physicians to The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network through its specialist schemes from 1989 to 2015 were analysed, using the Labour Force Survey as denominator where appropriate. Radiographers had a higher incidence of WRI compared to all other occupations. The most frequently reported WRI was skin conditions, followed by musculoskeletal. The observed increase in incidence is likely to be due to the increase in the number of radiographers over that time period, although there was no evidence that WRI within radiographers are declining.

Work-related musculoskeletal injuries in Prosthetists and Orthotists in Australia91px-Lock-blue.svgSource : International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics: JOSE , juin 2018

This study aims to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in prosthetists/orthotists working in Australia and to examine the relationship between work-related hazards and work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Results o fa self-report survey show that prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders was 80%. Gender, total weekly hours, Physical and Psychosocial hazards were all associated with reporting of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Females reported higher levels of work-related musculoskeletal disorder discomfort than males in all body areas. With results showing high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in prosthetists/orthotists, authors suggest that focus on work place injury prevention is required. Targeted prevention requires systematic identification and then control of all relevant workplace hazards.

 

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