Ergonomie : nouveautés septembre 2018

ergonomie_0Parmi les ressources présentées ce mois-ci, trente-deux portent sur l’ergonomie, l’aménagement et l’organisation du travail. On y découvrira : une nouvelle étude sur l’anthropométrie chez les adultes canadiens, des guides pour l’aménagement de différents services (hébergement de longue durée, imagerie médicale), des documents sur différents aspects de l’ergonomie de bureau, des calculatrices pour la manutention de charges, huit articles sur les impacts des horaires de travail (incluant les quarts de 12 heures chez le personnel infirmier et les préposés aux bénéficiaires), ainsi que six recherches sur les troubles musculosquelettiques.

Accès aux documents : La majorité des documents sont en accès ouvert. Deux icônes indiquent les conditions d’accès aux autres documents :

Ressource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)Ressource en accès restreint (il faut la faire demander en prêt entre bibliothèques ou bien l’acheter auprès de l’éditeur)

ressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)Ressource pour laquelle l’ASSTSAS ou un autre centre du réseau de la CNESST a un abonnement

Consultez les ressources par sujet :

Anthropométrie
Architecture et aménagement
Ergonomie de bureau
Hébergement et soins de longue durée
Horaire de travail
Manutention de charges
Organisation des tâches et du temps de travail
Troubles musculosquelettiques

Anthropométrie

Anthropometry of the Canadian adult population: Developing comprehensive, updated normative-reference standardsressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)
Source : International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 68, novembre 2018

Applications of structural anthropometric measurements include user-centered design, health risk appraisal and assessment of biological maturity. It is important that anthropometric normative-reference standards are current, comprehensive, and population specific. The aims of this investigation were to create current and comprehensive anthropometric normative-reference standards for a young Canadian adult population and to analyze the differences in anthropometric data between subjects in this study and those of a previous study on a similar population. Thirty-six structural body dimensions were manually measured on a sample size of 197 male and 204 female Ontario, Canada university-aged subjects. The current study was able to present anthropometric normative-reference standards of a large Canadian sample that are more comprehensive and current than known to exist. Moreover, as there were many significant differences between the current (Ontario) and previous (Nova Scotia) populations’ anthropometric data, it is suggested that a Canada wide study be investigated. As the most comprehensive Canadian data available, the reported anthropometric measurements may be used as a relevant consideration in product and environment design. Interpretation of findings from the comparison of anthropometric data between geographic regions within Canada also suggest that ergonomic design using province specific anthropometric data may result in improved workplace safety and productivity.

Architecture et aménagement

Circadian lighting creates calm in behavioral unit
Source : Hospital facilities management magazine, 2018

The 22-bed behavioral health unit within Seattle’s Swedish Medical Center was designed to promote patient healing and safety through a calming work environment for staff. A number of design elements to help achieve that goal, including circadian lighting, which synchronizes to natural sleep-wake rhythms to promote calm as the day comes to an end.THe enter’s post-occupancy evaluation reveals promising results.

Design guide for long term care homes : 2018 edition
Source : MMP Architects, 2018

This guide offers designers guidance for creating personal care homes for elders, particularly those with cognitive challenges. The author’s goal is to help designers provide spaces that encourage socialization, offer easier navigation, support better cognitive function, and set the stage for predictable care outcomes. The design guide emphasizes the deinstitutionalization of these facilities and applies the process of evidence-based design to their development, including practical explanations of a number of design issues. Use of the small household model to create environments in which elders can live out their later years with purpose and fulfillment is exemplified in six short case studies. Also included is a “master list of design interventions” for addressing basic design attributes.

FGI Guidelines help to redefine imaging spaces
Source : Health facilities management , août 2018

The 2018 FGI Guidelines documents have implemented a classification scheme for hospitals and outpatient facilities to correlate the planning and design of imaging suites with the level of support needed by the patient. The system differentiates imaging services based on three criteria: patient acuity, level of invasiveness and use of anesthesia. The highest patient condition in each of these categories defines the class level to which a room should be designed and built. For example, if a room truly serves as a diagnostic imaging facility, where the greatest level of intervention is the use of IV contrast, then the room would be appropriately designated Class 1. If the room is intended to support image-guided biopsies, imaging for patients who need clinical monitoring or percutaneous/minimally invasive procedures conducted under image guidance, the room should be designated Class 2. If the room is intended to serve an image-guided, open surgical procedure, then it needs to be designated Class 3.

What’s next for the FGI Guidelines?
Source : Hospital facilities management magazine, 2018

Public review process for the 2022 Guidelines will begin this fall.

Ergonomie de bureau

Additional Concerns About the Habitual Use of Active Workstations
Source : Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Prépublication, août 2018

While active worksations may help reduce sedentary time without affecting productivity, laboratory studies of such workstations may not apply to actual workplaces. This communication presents complementary aspects deserving of attention : workplace context, longer-term use, different types of workstations, user characteristics and education on the use of workstations.

Economic evaluation of a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce office workers’ sitting time: the « Stand Up Victoria » trial
Source : Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 44(5), 2018

This study aimed to assess the economic credentials of a workplace-delivered intervention to reduce sitting time among desk-based workers. We performed within-trial cost-efficacy analysis and long-term cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and recruited 231 desk-based workers, aged 24–65 years, across 14 worksites of one organization. Multicomponent workplace-delivered intervention was compared to usual practice. Main outcome measures including total device-measured workplace sitting time, body mass index (BMI), self-reported health-related quality of life (Assessment of Quality of Life-8D, AQoL-8D), and absenteeism measured at 12 months. Compared to usual practice, the intervention was associated with greater cost, benefits in terms of reduced workplace sitting time and increased workplace standing time. However, there were no significant benefits for BMI, QoL-8D and absenteeism. The intervention was cost-effective over the lifetime of the cohort when scaled up to the national workforce.

Effects of office workstation type on physical activity and stressressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)
Source : Occup Environ Med Prépublication, juillet 2018

Office environments have been causally linked to workplace-related illnesses and stress, yet little is known about how office workstation type is linked to objective metrics of physical activity and stress. We aimed to explore these associations among office workers in US federal office buildings. We conducted a wearable, sensor-based, observational study of 231 workers in four office buildings. Outcome variables included workers’ physiological stress response, physical activity and perceived stress. Relationships between office workstation type and these variables were assessed using structural equation modelling. Workers in open bench seating were more active at the office than those in private offices and cubicles and experienced lower perceived stress at the office than those in cubicles. Finally, higher physical activity at the office was related to lower physiological stress outside the office. Office workstation type was related to enhanced physical activity and reduced physiological and perceived stress. This research highlights how office design, driven by office workstation type, could be a health-promoting factor.

What do Workers do to Reduce Their Sitting Time? The Relationships of Strategy use and Workplace Support with Desk-Based Workers’ Behaviour Changes in a Workplace-Delivered Sitting-Reduction and Activity-Promoting InterventionRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Prépublication, août 2018

Objective: To explore workers’ sitting-reduction and activity-promoting strategy use following an intervention targeting these changes, and whether strategy use and perceived workplace support impacted on three-month sitting and activity outcomes. Methods: This secondary analysis in desk-based workers (n = 83) utilised data collected on questionnaire-derived strategy use and workplace support, and activPAL3TM-derived sitting (total; prolonged, ≥30mins) and activity (standing; stepping) at work. Results: Fourteen strategies were commonly used during the intervention. Increased usage of some strategies were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with beneficial changes in prolonged sitting or stepping only. Workplace support was significantly beneficially associated with changes in sitting, prolonged sitting, and stepping; these associations were largely independent of strategy use changes. Conclusions: Strategies were highly used, with increased use associated with some behavioural improvements. Workplace support appears essential for improving sitting and activity in the workplace.

Workplace standing for health can be socially uncomfortable
Source : Reuters Health , juillet 2018

Office workers who knew that standing during the day could keep them healthier still felt awkward when they stood during meetings while their colleagues were seated, a UK study found.

Hébergement et soins de longue durée

État des pratiques : Régulation des lieux d’habitation collectifs privés pour ainés.
Source : INESSS. 2018 Consulté à l’adresse

Les résidences privées pour aînés (RPA) sont des lieux d’habitation collective offrant certains services comme les repas, l’aide domestique, les loisirs, les services d’assistance personnelle ou les soins infirmiers. Pour assurer la qualité et la sécurité des RPA et des soins et services qu’elles offrent, le gouvernement québécois régule ce secteur au moyen notamment du Règlement sur la certification des résidences privées pour aînés. Or, la régulation des RPA et son impact sur le développement de ce secteur demeurent peu étudiés. La Direction du soutien à domicile (DSAD) du ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux (MSSS) a mandaté l’INESSS pour documenter ces sujets dans d’autres juridictions. Cet état des pratiques dresse un portrait de la régulation des lieux d’habitation collectifs privés pour ainés (LHCPA) au Canada (hors Québec) et à l’international. Différentes facettes de la régulation sont abordées (les dimensions du contrôle, de la prestation des services et du financement). Ce document pourra servir de plate-forme de réflexion à l’approche québécoise en matière de régulation des RPA.

Horaire de travail

A Quiet Place: Sleepless Healthcare Workersressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)
Source : Hospital Employee Health 37(8), août 2018

A recent study found that simply establishing a fatigue mitigation policy may not solve the problem if the work culture does not support breaks and napping.

Are long nursing shifts on hospital wards associated with sickness absence? A longitudinal retrospective observational studyRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Journal of Nursing Management Prépublication, 2018

Previous studies reported negative impacts on nurses’ 12 hr shifts; however, these studies used cross-sectional techniques and subjective nurse-reported data. This retrospective longitudinal study investigated whether working 12 hr shifts is associated with increased sickness absence among registered nurses and health care assistants using routinely collected data across 32 general inpatient wards at an acute hospital in England. We analysed 601,282 shifts and 8,090 distinct episodes of sickness absence. When more than 75% of shifts worked in the past 7 days were 12 hr in length, the odds of both a short-term (<7 days) and long-term sickness episode were increased compared with working none. Authors conclude that working long shifts on hospital wards is associated with a higher risk of sickness absence for registered nurses and health care assistants. Implications for Nursing Management : The higher sickness absence rates associated with long shifts could result in additional costs or loss of productivity for hospitals. The routine implementation of long shifts should be avoided.

Association between night-shift work, sleep quality and metabolic syndromeressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)
Source : Occup Environ Med , juillet 2018

Occupational factors, particularly night-shift work, are attracting growing interest as a possible determinant of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to determine the association between night-shift work and MetS, and assess whether sleep quality is a mediating factor. Of the 494 participants in this study, 177 (36%) worked night shift and 51% were men. The prevalence of MetS was 37%. Night-shift work was independently associated with a twofold increase in the risk of MetS (adjusted OR: 1.92, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.97). However, the association between night-shift work and MetS did not appear to be modified by sex. Night-shift workers also reported significantly poorer sleep quality, longer sleep latency, shorter sleep duration, sleep disturbances and daytime dysfunction. Authors conclude that early screening and management of MetS and the development of programmes to improve sleep quality should be carried out among night-shift workers. Future research should investigate other modifiable mediators linking night-shift work and MetS.

Impact of shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm: a one-year longitudinal study in junior physicians
Source : Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 13(1), août 2018

Cumulative epidemiological evidence suggests that shift work exerts harmful effects on human health. However, the physiological mechanisms are not well understood. This study aimed to examine the impact of shift work on the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, i.e. diurnal cortisol rhythm.

Le travail en horaires atypiques : quels salariés pour quelle organisation du temps de travail ?
Source : Dares analyses : publication de la Direction de l’animation de la recherche, des études et des statistiques (30), juin 2018

Travailler le soir, la nuit, le samedi ou le dimanche en horaires dits «atypiques» ne constitue pas des situations marginales. En 2017, en France, 44 % des salariés (10,4 millions de personnes) sont, au cours d’un mois, soumis à au moins un horaire de travail atypique sur leur lieu de travail, à leur domicile ou ailleurs. Le travail le samedi est le plus répandu avec 35 % des salariés mobilisés. Les horaires atypiques concernent davantage les hommes et sont moins fréquents chez les plus âgés. Ils se concentrent dans certaines familles professionnelles et certains secteurs d’activité, notamment pour assurer la continuité de la vie sociale, la permanence des services de soins, la protection et la sécurité des personnes et des biens. Même si les horaires atypiques donnent parfois lieu à des récupérations, les salariés qui en effectuent ont également des durées du travail plus longues que les autres salariés, à temps complet comme à temps partiel, et sont contraints à une plus grande disponibilité au-delà de leurs horaires habituels de travail.

Long shifts lead nurses to take more sick time, study shows
Source : Safety & Health , août 2018

Southampton, England — Nurses who regularly work 12-hour shifts or longer have more illness-related absences than those who work shorter shifts, according a study led by researchers at the University of Southampton.

Sleep quality, sleepiness and the influence of workplace breaks: A cross-sectional survey of health-care workers in two US hospitalsRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Chronobiology International 35(6), août 2018

This study assessed sleep quality, sleepiness and use of workplace break opportunities in 1285 health-care workers via an online questionnaire. Two hospitals were surveyed – one with and one without a fatigue mitigation policy. Across all respondents, 68.9% reported generally taking breaks of at least 30 min and 21.7% had access to a quiet place to rest, with no significant differences between hospitals. The presence of a fatigue mitigation policy was not associated with reduced sleepiness. However, accounting for hospital and shift characteristics, employees with access to a quiet place to rest while on break had significantly lower self-reported sleepiness scores.

The effect of shift work on eating habits: a systematic review
Source : Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health Prépublication, 2018

This systematic review aimed to evaluate the association between shift work and eating habits. The majority of the studies presented a quality score of <70% and a high risk of bias for comparability, sample selection and non-respondents. Shift workers show changes in meal patterns, skipping more meals and consuming more food at unconventional times. They also show higher consumption of unhealthy foods, such as saturated fats and soft drinks. Conclusions This review suggests that shift work can affect the quality of workers’ diets, but new studies, especially longitudinal studies, which examine the time of exposure to shift work, the duration of the workday and sleep patterns, are necessary to confirm this association.

Manutention de charges

Push/Pull/Carry Calculator
Source : WorkSafeBC , 2018

Excessive force used during push, pull, or carry tasks can result in injury. Use this calculator to estimate the suggested maximums for force that can be used during pushing and pulling, and for weight that can be carried. Adjust the values to match your unique situation. This calculator is based on data from a manual handling study commonly referred to as the Snook tables.

Worksheet A: MSI Risk Factor Identification
Source : WorkSafeBC WorkSafeBC, mai 2018

A worksheet to help identify factors that pose a risk of musculoskeletal injuries (MSI). If a risk is identified, employers can then use this documents companion publication, Worksheet B: MSI Risk Factor Assessment, to help assess the degree of risk. This worksheet is not intended to identify or assess MSI risks associated with moving or lifting people.

Worksheet B: MSI Risk Factor Assessment
Source : WorkSafeBC WorkSafeBC, mai 2018

A worksheet to help determine if the risk factors identified in Worksheet A pose a high or moderate risk of musculoskeletal injury (MSI). This worksheet is not intended to identify or assess MSI risks associated with moving or lifting people.

Organisation des tâches et du temps de travail

Comparison of rest-break interventions during a mentally demanding taskRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Stress and Health Prépublication, août 2018

Research is scarce on ways to enhance the effect of rest breaks during mentally demanding tasks. The present study investigated the effectiveness of two rest-break interventions on well-being during an academic lecture. Sixty-six students enrolled in two different university classes of 4-hr duration participated in the study. Two measures of well-being were assessed immediately before, after, and 20 minutes after the break. A control condition without a break as well as an unstructured break was compared with breaks either encompassing physical activity or a relaxation exercise. Compared with the nonbreak condition, the unstructured rest break led to an increase in vigor, the exercise break as well as the relaxation break both to an increase in vigor and a decrease in fatigue at 20-min post break. Compared with the unstructured break, exercise led to an (additional) increase in vigor and relaxation to an (additional) decrease in fatigue at 20-min post break. Thus, the effects of rest breaks during mentally demanding tasks can be enhanced by engaging in physical activity or relaxation exercises, with effects lasting at least as long as 20 min into the continuation of the task.

La démence au Canada
Source : Institut canadien d’information sur la santé , juin 2018

Ce premier rapport numérique de l’ICIS sur la démence brosse un portrait complet des répercussions de la démence sur les systèmes de santé du Canada, et les défis auxquels les personnes âgées atteintes de cette maladie font face à la maison, en soins de longue durée et dans les hôpitaux.

Reasons for presenteeism in nurses working in geriatric settings: A qualitative study
Source : Journal of Hospital Administration 7(4), mai 2018

Presenteeism, defined as working when unwell, is associated with lost productivity and increased absenteeism. It is more commonly reported by employees in the healthcare sector than other sectors. This exploratory, qualitative study uses semi-structured interviews, thematically analysed. Four major themes emerged that related to nurses’ decisions to engage in presenteeism: illness perceptions, which included participants’ views and experiences of their own health complaints; attitudes to their employing organisation, co-workers and patients; organisational aspects such as culture and administrative arrangements; and personal reasons including illness behaviour preference and personal circumstances. Workplace health promotion initiatives should target nurses’ management of their own health, particularly if they have chronic illnesses. Workplace policies and arrangements should be examined with a view to controlling presenteeism.

The joint use of resilience engineering and lean production for work system design: A study in healthcare
Source : Applied Ergonomics 71, septembre 2018

Although lean production (LP) has been increasingly adopted in healthcare systems, its benefits often fall short of expectations. This might be partially due to the failure of lean to account for the complexity of healthcare. This paper discusses the joint use of principles of LP and resilience engineering (RE), which is an approach for system design inspired by complexity science. Thus, a framework for supporting the design of socio-technical systems, which combines insights from LP and RE, was developed and tested in a system involving a patient flow from an emergency department to an intensive care unit. Based on this empirical study, as well as on extant theory, eight design propositions that support the framework application were developed. Both the framework and its corresponding propositions can contribute to the design of socio-technical systems that are at the same time safe and efficient.

Troubles musculosquelettiques

An ergonomic field study to evaluate the effects of a rotatable handle piece on muscular stress and fatigue as well as subjective ratings of usability, wrist posture and precision during laparoscopic surgery: an explorative pilot study
Source : International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health , août 2018

Purpose The interface between surgeon and the laparoscopic instrument is an important factor in biomechanical stress that may increase the risk of musculoskeletal complaints in surgeons. This article investigates the effect of a laparoscopic instrument with a rotatable handle piece (rot-HP) on muscular stress and fatigue during routine laparoscopic procedures (LP) as well as usability, wrist posture and working precision.
Results Using the rot-HP did not reduce muscular stress. A tendency of muscular fatigue (increasing EA, decreasing MPF) occurred in the upper trapezius, middle deltoid and extensor digitorum muscles; however, no differences were found between handle pieces. Wrist posture was more comfortable using the rot-HP and working precision and usability tended to be preferred using the standard handle piece.
Conclusions Although wrist posture seemed to be optimized by the rot-HP, no effect on muscular stress and fatigue was observed in routine LP (< 60 min duration). Optimization of wrist posture may provide positive effects in mid- or long-term procedures. However, sufficient familiarization with the new instrument is crucial since working precision and usability could be impaired.

Des principes biomécaniques pour réduire les blessures
Source : Prévention au travail 31(2), 2018

Dans les métiers exigeant des efforts physiques, des mouvements mal exécutés peuvent entraîner des lésions professionnelles. C’est pourquoi des spécialistes de l’ergonomie du travail s’appliquent à améliorer la formation des employés pour qu’ils comprennent mieux les principes biomécaniques, et à ainsi réduire les troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS) en milieu de travail. Les réclamations pour des lésions de type TMS sont particulièrement nombreuses chez le personnel spécialisé et auxiliaire en soins infirmers et thérapeutiques ainsi que les manutentionnaires et travailleurs assimilés.

The influence of external load configuration on trunk biomechanics and spinal loading during sudden loadingRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Ergonomics Prépublication, août 2018

Practitioner summary: Increased trunk rotational stiffness and peak L5/S1 joint compression force were observed when undergoing a sudden load release of a medially distributed load compared to a laterally distributed load revealing a less stable hand load condition due to the reduced moment of inertia. The laterally distributed load could increase the load’s resistance to physical perturbations and mitigate spinal loading during sudden loading events.

Overall risk index for patient transfers in total assistance mode executed by emergency medical technician-paramedics in real work situations.
Source : Applied Ergonomics, 74, 177‑185. 2019.

Few studies have quantified the risk of musculoskeletal disorders during patient transfers in total assistance mode in real-life prehospital emergency care situations. An index to assess the overall risk of patient transfers was created; it makes it possible to quantify risk based on the patient’s position and the height of the patient’s location. An analysis of 71 transfers executed by paramedics in actual work situations showed that moving a patient from the ground was characterized by acute sagittal flexions and axial rotations, respectively, 42% and 12% of the time. When the patient was lying on a raised surface, the lifting index and perceived exertion were the lowest (2.55; easy). According to the overall risk index, patient transfers from the ground are the riskiest. Paramedics execute many risky lifts even in favorable patient handling contexts.

Troubles musculosquelettiques : mobilisation collective pour l’aide à domicile
Source : Travail & Sécurité (796), août 2018

Les métiers de l’aide à la personne exposent les salariés à des risques de troubles musculosquelettiques. Pour préserver la santé de ses salriés, l’association Facilavie, qui intervient sur tout le département du Cher, a défini début 2017 un plan d’action portant sur plusieurs axes : formation d’une personne ressource en interne, information de tout le personnel (administratif et d’intervention à domicile, CHSCT) et des usagers, mise à disposition de matériel adapté.

Two-dimensional biomechanical thumb model for pipetting
Source : International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 68, novembre 2018

Manual pipetting imposes repetitive movements, high force, and awkward postures on the thumb, fingers, and wrist, increasing the risk of musculoskeletal injuries. The purpose of this study is to provide a linear regression model to estimate the optimal pipetting grip height based on the two-dimensional biomechanical static thumb model developed in this study. This biomechanical static thumb model uses hand anatomy and static equilibrium conditions to estimate internal tendon forces against a given external force. Based on the model, we conclude that the optimal grip height is 3 cm in males and 2 cm in females in terms of grip strength and force efficiency.

 

Laisser un commentaire

Entrez vos coordonnées ci-dessous ou cliquez sur une icône pour vous connecter:

Logo WordPress.com

Vous commentez à l'aide de votre compte WordPress.com. Déconnexion /  Changer )

Photo Google+

Vous commentez à l'aide de votre compte Google+. Déconnexion /  Changer )

Image Twitter

Vous commentez à l'aide de votre compte Twitter. Déconnexion /  Changer )

Photo Facebook

Vous commentez à l'aide de votre compte Facebook. Déconnexion /  Changer )

Connexion à %s