Organisation de la SST : nouveautés septembre 2018

preventionCe billet rassemble les nouveautés reliés à l’organisation de la SST. Plusieurs publications abordent la formation : une nouvelle norme, un article comparant la formation en réalité virtuelle à la formation sur Powerpoint, ainsi qu’une étude du rôle des collègues, superviseurs et préventionnistes dans le transfert de connaissances. D’autres articles touchent davantage à la gestion : gestion du changement, mais aussi gestion du personnel, notamment le nouveau Guide de bonnes pratiques pour favoriser l’embauche, le maintien et le retour en emploi des travailleurs expérimentés publié par le BNQ. D’autres articles touchent à la communication et à la participation, entre autres dans les comités SST. La planification de la prévention fait l’objet d’une boîte à outils de la Royal College of Nursing. Enfin, quatre publications sont des études statistiques ou portent sur des indicateurs et un article traite du le retour sur investissement de la SST.

Accès aux documents : La majorité des documents sont en accès ouvert. Deux icônes indiquent les conditions d’accès aux autres documents :

Ressource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)Ressource en accès restreint (il faut la faire demander en prêt entre bibliothèques ou bien l’acheter auprès de l’éditeur)

ressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)Ressource pour laquelle l’ASSTSAS ou un autre centre du réseau de la CNESST a un abonnement

Accéder aux ressources par sujet :

Comité de santé et sécurité au travail
Communication en SST
Culture de la SST
Formation en SST
Gestion du changement
Gestion du personnel
Mesures et interventions d’urgence
Normes, lois et règlements en SST
Organisation de la SST/ Identification des risques
Participation et consultation du milieu de travail
Planification de la prévention
Retour sur investissement de la prévention
Statistiques en SST

Comité de santé et sécurité au travail

Infographie sur les comités de santé et sécurité efficaces
Source : Centre canadien d’hygiène et de sécurité au travail , juillet 2018

Cette infographie décrit les exigences et les bonnes pratiques d’un comité de santé et de sécurité efficace, depuis la définition des rôles et des responsabilités, jusqu’à la formation et les ressources, en passant par la reconnaissance et la gestion des risques en milieu de travail.

Communication en SST

A Radical Idea for Encouraging Worker Feedback
Source : EHS Today , juillet 2018

People fear the repercussions of speaking their mind; research bears this out. To share their honest assessments with the boss, they need to feel safe that it won’t cause distress. We can ask for feedback in ways that capture the value of transparency in a psychologically safe way. I call this “safe transparency.” Below are some ideas for gathering honest feedback that makes people feel safe to offer honest insights.

Speaking up about patient safety concerns: the influence of safety management approaches and climate on nurses’ willingness to speak upRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : BMJ Qual Saf , juin 2018

Speaking up is important for patient safety, but healthcare professionals often hesitate to voice their concerns. Direct supervisors have an important role in influencing speaking up. However, good insight into the relationship between managers’ behaviour and employees’ perceptions about whether speaking up is safe and worthwhile is still lacking. This study aims to explore the relationships between control-based and commitment-based safety management, climate for safety, psychological safety and nurses’ willingness to speak up. Results provide initial support that nurses who perceive higher levels of commitment-based safety management feel safer to take interpersonal risks and are more willing to speak up about patient safety concerns. Furthermore, nurses’ perceptions of control-based safety management are found to be positively related to a climate for safety, although no association was found with speaking up. Both control-based and commitment-based management approaches seem to be relevant for managing patient safety, but when it comes to encouraging speaking up, a commitment-based safety management approach seems to be most valuable.

Culture de la SST

MotivactionRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Travail et santé 34(2), juin 2018

Avoir un impact sur la motivation des différents acteurs d’une organisation en matière de sécurité est un défi. L’existence et la visibilité des conséquences positives des choix sécuritaires sont une variable cruciale dans l’engagement des personnes, mais également au développement d’une culture intégrant davantage la santé-sécurité.

Responsabilisation en SST : rôle des superviseursRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Travail et santé 34(2), juin 2018

Au fil des ans, j’en suis venu à développer beaucoup de sympathie pour les superviseurs et gestionnaires de premier niveau. En effet, les attentes des organisations à leur égard sont énormes. Ils sont le niveau de gestion qui se retrouve au coeur même des opérations. Ils ont un rôle crucial à jouer dans l’établissement d’une culture SST; le présent article vise à explorer ce rôle plus en profondeur et à proposer quelques pistes pour qu’il soit rempli efficacement.

Formation en SST

CAN/CSA Z1001-18 : Formation en matière de santé et sécurité au travailRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : CSA, 2018

Cette norme énonce des exigences relatives à la gestion et à l’administration de formations en santé et sécurité du travail (SST), à l’identification de besoins de formation, de même qu’à l’élaboration, à la mise en œuvre et à la mise à jour d’un programme de formation en SST. La norme indique également comment choisir un fournisseur de formations avec les compétences appropriées.

Comparing immersive virtual reality and powerpoint as methods for delivering safety training: Impacts on risk perception, learning, and decision makingressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)
Source : Safety Science , juillet 2018

In two experimental studies, we compared safety training given via immersive virtual reality with safety training given via PowerPoint in their effects on risk perception, learning, and risky choices. In Study 1, we compared the two methods in a sample of apprentices (N = 53) and also investigated whether participants’ conscientiousness and locus of control moderated the effects of safety training. In Study 1, we found an effect of training method on the change in risk perception in terms of probability judgments and on risky decisions but not on learning. In Study 2 (N = 68), we sought to replicate Study 1 and also tested whether domain-specific risk attitudes affected risk perception and choice. Furthermore, long-term effects of safety training on information recall and risk perception after a 6-month interval were assessed. The effects found in Study 1 could not be replicated in Study 2. Neither study found an interaction between presentation medium and personality. We conclude that the costly procedure of immersive virtual reality (VR) does not seem justified for safety training because the less costly PowerPoint procedure with vivid film scenes did not fare significantly worse with respect to changes in risk perception, learning outcomes, or decision making.

Does compulsory training improve occupational safety and health implementation? The case of Malaysianressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)
Source : Safety Science , juillet 2018

The objective of this article was to investigate the effectiveness of occupational safety and health’s (OSH) compulsory training since it has never been addressed before. Although previous researchers find that OSH training is very important as an intervention to create safety climate; however, some researchers find that compulsory training is ineffective as compared to optional training. Hence, findings of this current research offers original contribution by determining whether OSH’s compulsory training could stimulate OSH implementation using a quasi-experimental design. An amount of 287 Malaysian participants attended 21 OSH’s compulsory training organized by the Malaysian’s National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 2015 was taken for sample. A paired sample t-test indicates a significant implementation of OSH among respondents. In fact, 88.5% respondents passed learning examination at the end of training and majority or 98.3% respondents used what they learned in training at their respective workplaces after training completion. Additionally, using independent sample t-test, it is indicated that there is no significant different between respondents that felt they are mandated and voluntary to attend the OSH’s compulsory training. Hence, it is verified that compulsory training could also be effective; in which, the NIOSH’s compulsory training had stimulate OSH implementation among the Malaysian. Implications for future research and practice were also discussed.

Safety training transfer: The roles of coworkers, supervisors, safety professionals, and felt responsibilityressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)
Source : Journal of Occupational Health Psychology Prépublication, 2018

The aim of this study is to identify the influence of social dimensions of the work environment and the employees’ felt responsibility on the transfer of safety training. We tested a model in which responses and reactions from safety players such as coworkers, supervisors, and safety professionals are positively related to the transfer of training (TT), through the mediating effect of the employees’ felt responsibility and the moderating influence of supervisor support and sanctions. Data analysis revealed that (a) supervisors’ safety responses, coworkers’ safety responses, and safety professionals’ reactions positively influenced the TT, an effect (b) mediated by employees’ felt responsibility and (c) moderated by supervisor sanctions, but not by supervisor support. The results suggest that high sanctions enhance the positive effect of high self-responsibility on TT, and, importantly, aggravate the negative effect of low self-responsibility on TT.

Gestion du changement

Longitudinal associations between organizational change, work-unit social capital, and employee exit from the work unit among public healthcare workers: a mediation analysis
Source : Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health Prépublication, août 2018

Organizational changes are associated with higher rates of subsequent employee exit from the workplace, but the mediating role of social capital is unknown. We examined the associations between organizational changes and subsequent employee exit from the work unit and mediation through social capital. Methods Throughout 2013, 14 059 healthcare employees worked in the Capital Region of Denmark. Data on work-unit changes (yes/no) from July‒December 2013 were collected via a survey distributed to all managers (merger, split-up, relocation, change of management, employee layoff, budget cuts). Eight employee-reported items assessing social capital were aggregated into work-unit measures (quartiles: low-high). Data on employee exit from the work unit in 2014 were obtained from company registries. Results We found a somewhat higher rate of employee exit from the work unit after changes versus no changes [hazard ratio (HR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.19] and an inverse dose‒response relationship between social capital and employee-exit rates (low versus high: HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.46–1.86). We also showed a higher risk of low social capital in work units exposed to changes [low versus high: odds ratio (OR) 2.04, 95% CI 1.86–2.23]. Accounting for potential mediation through social capital seemed slightly to reduce the association between changes and employee-exit rates (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.98–1.16 versus HR 1.10). Conclusions Work-unit organizational changes prospectively predict lower work-unit social capital, and lower social capital is associated with higher employee-exit rates. Detection of weak indications of mediation through social capital, if any, were limited by inconsistent associations between changes and employee exit from the work unit.

Organizational readiness for implementing change in acute care hospitals: an analysis of a cross‐sectional, multi‐centre studyRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Journal of Advanced Nursing Prépublication, juillet 2018

Aim To assess nurse‐reported organizational readiness for implementing change in acute care hospitals. Background An organization’s success at implementing new policies and programmes depends largely on its stakeholders’ readiness for change. Organizational readiness is a multilevel, multifaceted construct associated with staffing, leadership and quality of care.
Results Nurses were positive about implementing change in their hospitals. Intraclass correlation was higher at the unit level than at the hospital level for both change commitment and change efficacy. Nursing foundation for quality of care and supportive leadership were positively associated with readiness, change commitment and change efficacy. However, staffing and resource adequacy was positively associated only with change efficacy. No association was found with standardized staffing. Conclusion While organizational readiness scores vary among hospitals and units, they are positively associated with supportive leadership and a foundation for quality of care.

Gestion du personnel

Guide de bonnes pratiques pour favoriser l’embauche, le maintien et le retour en emploi des travailleurs expérimentés
Source : Bureau de normalisation du Québec, 2018

Ce guide propose des mesures et de bonnes pratiques pour favoriser l’embauche, le maintien et le retour en emploi des travailleurs expérimentés. Il s’adresse aux organisations qui désirent encourager ces travailleurs à poursuivre leur carrière et favoriser l’embauche et le retour en emploi des travailleurs expériementés après une absence. Il vise à les appuyer dans la mise en place de milieux de travail accueillants et répondant à la réalité de ces travailleurs. Le guide propose aussi des mesures pour aider les organisations à profiter de la richesse de ce bassin de main-d’œuvre dans la planification de leurs effectifs. D’application volontaire, il s’applique aux organisations de toutes tailles et de tous secteurs.

Precarious employment and occupational accidents and injuries – a systematic review
Source : Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 0, 2018

Precarious employment conditions have become more common in many countries over the last decades, and have been linked to various adverse health outcomes. The objective of this review was to collect and summarize existing scientific research of the relationship between dimensions of precarious employment and the rate of occupational injuries. Of 471 original titles found, 17 articles met all the inclusion criteria. This review supports an association between some of the dimensions of precarious employment and occupational injuries; most notably for multiple jobholders and employees of temp agencies or subcontractors at the same worksite. However, results for temporary employment are inconclusive. There is a need for more prospective studies of high quality, designed to measure effect sizes as well as causality.

Precarious employment and occupational injuries in the digital age ‒ where should we go from here?
Source : Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health , 2018

There is growing demand for a clearer understanding of whether precarious work is a social determinant of health (1‒5) and whether non-standard workers with less job security are more vulnerable to adverse safety and health outcomes. In their systematic review published in the current issue of the Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment and Health, Koranyi et al (6) define “precarious employment” as a multidimensional set of unfavorable work characteristics experienced in various degrees by workers with the common denominator of loss of security in some domain. Their review makes an important contribution to this area by summarizing the existing scientific research on the relationship between precarious work and risk of occupational injury.

Mesures et interventions d’urgence

Responding to Mass Shootings: Are Hospitals—and Nurses—Fully Prepared?
Source : AJN The American Journal of Nursing 118(9), septembre 2018

The nurses and physicians who have experienced mass shootings firsthand–including the nurse supervisor of the trauma resuscitation unit that treated the victims of the Las Vegas shooting–discuss the importance of disaster planning.

Normes, lois et règlements en SST

Could we have better occupational health guidelines, please?
Source : Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 44, 2018

There is a wide variation in expert judgments across a range of fields, including healthcare, and experts are quite bad at making predictions. Expert-based recommendations for biomechanical risk factors at work from the International Standard Organization (ISO) have also been criticized for not being based on scientific evidence. The WHO uses systematic review methodology in the development of their guidelines: evaluation of guidelines using their approach have been shown to be resistant to bias from industry. In countries such as the Netherlands, guidelines have been developed to assist occupational health practitioners in the management of occupational health conditions based on a similar evidence-based approach. Unfortunately, a recent review and appraisal of guidelines to assist employers and workers in preventing or decreasing mental health problems at work showed that few guidelines based their recommendations on a systematic review of the evidence, and none considered evidence of the effectiveness of the recommended interventions. Given the size of the problem, with depression being the leading cause of disability among workers in most countries, there is an urgent need to develop guidelines of better methodological quality. The tools are available and recent WHO guidelines show that these tools can be applied also in OSH.

GRI 403 : Occupational health and safety 2018
Source : Global Sustainability Standards Board (GSSB), 2018

GRI 403: Occupational Health and Safety  sets out reporting requirements on the topic of occupational health and safety. Developed through a unique multi-stakeholder consultative process involving representatives from organizations and report information users from around the world with considerable knowledge and experience in occupational health and safety, it can be used by an organization of any size, type, sector or geographic location that wants to report on its impacts related to this topic. GRI 403 is part of the set of GRI Sustainability Reporting Standards, designed to be used by organizations to report about their impacts on the economy, the environment, and society. This new Standard aligns with key international instruments from the International Labour Organization (ILO) and with ISO 45001.

Liens utiles :
Presentation vidéo des points clés de la norme (20 minutes, en anglais)

“We can stop work, but then nothing gets done.” Factors that support and hinder a workforce to discontinue work for safety
Source : Safety Science 108, octobre 2018

Workers have a legal obligation not to perform unsafe work. In many organisations this obligation is supported by an explicit authority to discontinue work or to stop the work of others if the conditions of work are unsafe. The supporting document is often called an ‘Authority to Stop an Unsafe Task.’ However, when conducting work at the sharp operational end of the organisation, stopping work for safety might be challenging at times. The aim of this research is to identify some of the factors that support and hinder workers to effectively stop work when a task is deemed unsafe. 10 focus groups were conducted with workers of various roles in the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) industry. The findings outline reasons to stop, challenges and supporting factors of stopping, as well as ways of stopping. The results indicate that the stopping of an unsafe task does not solely hinge on the willingness of individual workers to stop, but also depends on contextual factors surrounding the stop work decision.

Organisation de la SST/ Identification des risques

Occupational health and safety in public health emergencies: A manual for protecting health workers and responders
Source : International Labour Office, juin 2018

This manual provides an overview of the main OSH risks faced by emergency responders during disease outbreaks and other emergencies, such as natural disasters, chemical incidents, radiological emergencies and emergencies involving conflicts.

Participation et consultation du milieu de travail

ISO 45001 favorise la consultation et la participation des travailleurs
Source : Centre patronal SST , juin 2018

La participation active et structurée des travailleurs en SST est essentielle pour une réussite en prévention. Or, cet aspect incontournable est justement mis de l’avant dans la nouvelle norme internationale ISO 45001 (édition mars 2018).

Planification de la prévention

Healthy workplace toolkit
Source : Royal College of Nursing, 2018

This toolkit is divided into five domains, work-life balance, dignity at work, health and safety at work, job design and learning and development in the workplace. Indicators under each of the five domains can be used to carry out a health check of your organisation and identify areas for improvement. The toolkit includes links to support when making improvements.

Safety work versus the safety of work
Source : Safety Science , juillet 2018

‘Safety work’ consists of activities, conducted within organisations, that have the primary purpose of managing safety. Our model presents four types of safety work : (1) social safety, a type of conceptual work aimed specifically at maintaining safety as a value, and the organisation’s belief in itself as a champion of safety; (2) demonstrated safety, structural work oriented towards stakeholders outside of the organisation, showing that the organisation is meeting its safety obligations; (3) administrative safety, structural work oriented inwards, providing a mechanism for safety concerns to influence operational work and (4) physical safety, work that directly transforms the work environment in the interest of safety. Each of the four types of safety work are legitimate activities for organisations. Other contemporary safety theories have attempted to de-legitimise non-physical safety work in order to reduce bureaucracy and increase organisational efforts on ‘actual’ (operational) safety. These approaches have had limited success due to their failure to acknowledge the social complexity of modern organisations. In contrast, our model explains how safety as a complex organizational performance gets enacted and reinforced. The model provides a way to talk about how and why types of safety work are legitimised and performed separately from discussions about their efficacy in creating operational safety.

Retour sur investissement de la prévention

La prévention des risques : un atout pour la performance de l’entreprise
Source : Hygiène et sécurité au travail (251), juin 2018

La question de la contribution de la prévention à la performance des entreprises prend une place de plus en plus importante dans le débat public. Souvent perçue comme une contrainte, voire un coût, la prévention peut, si elle est intégrée à la marche de l’entreprise, contribuer à l’amélioration de sa productivité et de sa performance. La performance de l’entreprise repose en effet en grande partie sur les compétences et l’implication des hommes et des femmes qui la composent et qui sont l’objet même de la prévention des risques professionnels. Ce dossier, à travers différents concepts, approches, points de vue et exemples d’actions, apporte des arguments permettant d’objectiver la participation naturelle de la prévention à la performance durable de l’entreprise.

Statistiques en SST

Beyond Determining Compliance: How Can Workers’ Compensation Insurers’ Exposure Data Be Improved and Used?
Source : NIOSH Science Blog , août 2018

The workers’ compensation system can be used for more than processing work-related illness or injury insurance claims. The data collected through this system provide valuable information to identify how these injuries and illnesses happen, so that they can be prevented. In recent years, use of workers’ compensation injury and illness data in the public health field has grown. However, occupational exposure data (also known as industrial hygiene data) collected by many workers’ compensation insurers is understudied. If analyzed, these data may help identify priority hazards and trends over time because the data include worker exposures to different types of stressors (chemical, physical, biological, ergonomic). The data could also be used to develop strategies for controlling exposures that would improve worker health.

Preventing disease through a healthier and safer workplace
Source : World Health Organization, 2018

This comprehensive global assessment provides insights on the health impacts that could be avoided through healthier and safer workplaces. It is estimated that 2.1% of all deaths and 2.7% of the disease burden worldwide can be attributed to quantified occupational risks. These and the effects from many more unquantified risks are outlined. Noncommunicable diseases contribute 70% to the total disease burden from occupational risks, with chronic pulmonary disease and cancers causing the highest work-related death toll, joined by back and neck pain when considering disease burden. Workers in low- and middle-income  countries  bear  the  largest  share  of  deaths  and  disability  from  workplace  exposures. The report also clearly identifies that prevention strategies are available to avoid a significant percentage of work-related deaths and of the disease burden. Implementing such strategies is important in efforts to attain the Sustainable Development Goals. Targeted action towards healthier and safer workplaces will contribute to sustainably improving and protecting the lives of millions around the world.

Reoccurring Injury, Chronic Health Conditions, and Behavioral Health: Gender Differences in the Causes of Workers’ Compensation Claimsressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)
Source : Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 60(8), août 2018

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine how work and nonwork health-related factors contribute to workers’ compensation (WC) claims by gender. Methods: Workers (N = 16,926) were enrolled in the Pinnacol Assurance Health Risk Management study, a multiyear, longitudinal research program assessing small and medium-sized enterprises in Colorado. Hypotheses were tested using gender-stratified logistic regression models. Results: For both women and men, having incurred a prior WC claim increased the odds of a future claim. The combination of incurring a prior claim and having metabolic health conditions resulted in lower odds of a future claim. Behavioral health risk factors increased the odds of having a claim more so among women than among men. Conclusion: This study provides data to support multifactorial injury theories, and the need for injury prevention efforts that consider workplace conditions as well as worker health.

The problem with composite indicators
Source : BMJ Quality and Safety , août 2018

‘The Problem with…’ series covers controversial topics related to efforts to improve healthcare quality, including widely recommended but deceptively difficult strategies for improvement and pervasive problems that seem to resist solution.

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