Santé psychologique : nouveautés septembre 2018

risquephyscologiquePlusieurs nouvelles publications se penchent sur l’impact du travail affectif, des émotions et de la compassion sur la santé psychologique. D’autres étudient le rôle des gestionnaires et du style de leadership. Certains articles présentent des échelles ou des outils de mesure utiles pour la prévention, et deux recherches mettent à l’essai des outils informatiques. Les autres articles portent sur le charge de travail, l’intimidation, le stress ou le contexte du travail infirmier.

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Consulter les documents par sujet:

Charge de travail
Compassion, émotion et travail affectif
Échelles et outils de mesure
Gestion et leadership
Intimidation
Outils numériques
Personnel infirmier
Stress

Charge de travail

Time pressure and sleep problems due to thoughts about work as risk factors for future sickness absence
Source : International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health Prépublication, août 2018

This study investigated whether time pressure or sleep problems due to thoughts about work are associated with future sickness absence (SA) among women and men employed in different sectors, also when adjusting for confounders including familial factors (genetics and shared environment). Results – In total 5723 (35%) individuals had an incident SA spell during follow-up. Sleep problems due to thoughts about work were associated with SA. Stratified by sector, the highest estimate was found for state employees. Familial factors did not seem to influence the associations. We found no statistically significant associations between time pressure and SA. No sex differences were found. Conclusions – Results indicated that sleep problems due to thoughts about work is a risk factor for future SA. This follows previous research showing that sleep length and sleep disturbances, regardless of reason, are associated with SA. But, experiences of work-related time pressure seem to have no effect on SA.

Underemployment, overemployment and deterioration of mental health: the role of job rewards
Source : International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health Prépublication, août 2018

Working more or less than preferred has been associated with poor mental health in cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal evidence is scarce. We investigate whether under- and overemployment is associated with 2-year changes of mental health and whether associations vary by job rewards. Findings indicate that overemployment and low reward at work (for men and women) were linked to a reduction in mental health. Underemployment was not related to a reduction in mental health. Albeit associations between under-/overemployment and mental health slightly differed across levels of reward, interactions did not reach statistical significance. Our findings demonstrate that overemployment was related to negative mental health change, and that this relationship held true both for people with high and with low reward at work.

Compassion, émotion et travail affectif

Climate and organizational performance in long-term care facilities: The role of affective commitmentressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)
Source : Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology Prépublication, juillet 2018

This study explores the mediating role of affective organizational commitment in the relationship between a climate for nursing and organizational performance. Our results suggest that creating a beneficial nursing climate may help organizations foster positive job attitudes, such as organizational commitment. Creating a positive climate, like a nursing climate, and fostering job attitudes among employees, such as organizational commitment, are associated with organizational performance benefits. The implications of a climate may not be fully realized immediately; organizational leaders driving initiatives to create a positive climate should expect it will take some time to realize benefits on organizational performance indicators.

Extent of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout in nursing: A meta-analysisRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Journal of Nursing Management Prépublication, août 2018

Aims A meta-analysis was conducted of the prevalence rates of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout to identify the factors influencing these rates. Background The extents of compassion fatigue and burnout adversely affect nursing efficiency. However, the reported prevalence rates vary considerably. Methods Data were acquired from electronic databases. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to obtain pooled estimates of the prevalence rates of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout and their respective instrumental scores. Meta-regression analyses were performed to identify factors influencing these rates. Results Data from 21 studies were used for the meta-analysis. The prevalence rates of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout were 47.55%, 52.55% and 51.98%, respectively. The possession of Bachelor’s or Master’s degrees by the nurses was significantly inversely associated with the percent prevalence of compassion fatigue (coefficient: −1.187) and burnout (coefficient: −0.810). The compassion fatigue score was also significantly inversely associated with nursing status as registered or licensed practical nurse (coefficient: −0.135). Conclusion In nursing, the prevalence rates of compassion fatigue and burnout are high. Better education and training may have a moderating effect on compassion fatigue and burnout and could improve the quality of life of nurses.

Reciprocal relations between care-related emotional burden and sleep problems in healthcare professionals: a multicentre international cohort studyressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)Source : Occup Environ Med , juillet 2018

This study aimed to determine whether there are reciprocal relations between care-related regret and insomnia severity among healthcare professionals, and whether the use of different coping strategies influences these associations.  The associations between regret and insomnia severity were bidirectional. In a given week, regret intensity and number of regrets were significantly associated with increased insomnia severity the following week. Conversely, insomnia severity in a given week was significantly associated with higher regret intensity and more regrets the week after. The effects of regret on insomnia severity were much stronger than those in the opposite direction. Coping strategies, especially maladaptive ones, modified the strength of these cross-lagged associations. Care-related regret and sleep problems are closely intertwined among healthcare professionals. Given the high prevalence of these issues, our findings call for the implementation of interventions that are specifically designed to help healthcare professionals to reduce their use of maladaptive coping strategies.

“Who’s Caring for Us?”: Understanding and Addressing the Effects of Emotional Labor on Home Health Aides’ Well-beingRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)Source : The Gerontologist , août 2018

Interventions to strengthen the home care workforce focus on workers’ economic and physical well-being, without acknowledging the caring labor affecting emotional well-being. Our study used worker focus groups to examine workers’ perceptions of the emotional effects of caring work, coping mechanisms, and desired support. Building close, trusting relationships with clients was central to aides’ emotional well-being. Well-being was also influenced by relationships with client families and agency supervisors, work–life balance, and the level to which aides felt their work was valued. Aides were largely alone in managing job stressors and desired more communication, connection, and support from supervisors and peers. Recognizing and supporting the emotional demands of caring work is crucial to strengthening the workforce. Policy makers and agencies must realign reimbursement systems, job descriptions, and care plans to include measures of emotional labor, improve communication between workers and supervisors, and provide training, mental health benefits, and peer support.

When antecedent becomes consequent: An examination of the temporal order of job dissatisfaction and verbal aggression exposure in a longitudinal studyressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)
Source : Work & Stress Prépublication, août 2018

Past research has traditionally examined stressors as predictors and strains as outcomes. However, some recent research has found evidence of reverse causality between various stressors and strains. This study examines the temporal direction of the relationship between verbal aggression exposure and job satisfaction. Specifically, through the lens of emotional contagion theory, we suggest that low levels of job satisfaction in employees are detectable by others, which in turn leads them to engage in verbal aggression directed toward those employees. To test this postulation, 309 emergency medical professionals completed surveys that assessed verbal aggression exposure and job satisfaction across three time points. Overall, results suggest that job satisfaction may serve as a predictor of verbal aggression exposure rather than a result within high stakes environments such as the emergency medical services.

Échelles et outils de mesure

Development and Validation of an Emotional Labor Scale for NursesRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)Source : Journal of Nursing Management Prépublication, août 2018

Nurses experience emotional labor when they interact with patients. In previous research, nurses’ emotional labor was measured using tools developed for other occupations, which made it difficult to clarify the attributes specific to nursing. This study aimed to develop an instrument to measure nurses’ emotional labor and to examine the scale’s validity and reliability. Preliminary items were developed through a literature review, interviews, and constructing a conceptual framework. Data collected from 304 nurses working at metropolitan area hospitals were utilized to test the preliminary tool’s validity and reliability. The final scale comprised 16 items, divided into 3 factors, “emotional control effort in profession”, “patient-focused emotional suppression”, and “emotional pretense by norms”. Results indicate that the proposed scale was valid and reliable, and suitable for assessing nurses’ emotional labor.

Development and Validation of the Moral Distress in Dementia Care Survey (MDDCS) InstrumentRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Journal of Advanced Nursing Prépublication(ja), juillet 2018

Despite growing awareness of moral distress among nurses, little is known about the moral distress experiences of nursing staff in dementia care settings. To address this gap, our research team developed a tool for measuring the frequency, severity and effects of moral distress in nursing staff working in dementia care. Based on 389 completed surveys from nurses,  and health care aides across 23 sites, the Moral Distress in Dementia Care Survey (MDDCS) instrument emerged as a reliable and valid instrument to measure the frequency, severity and effects of moral distress for nursing staff in dementia care settings and for the evaluation of measures taken to mitigate moral distress.

Signs of struggle (SOS): The development and validation of a behavioural mental health checklist for the workplaceRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Work & Stress Prépublication, juillet 2018

For managers to successfully support employee access to mental health resources, they must first be able to recognise if and when an employee may need help. To manage employees effectively, managers must be able to recognise changes in employees’ work behaviour that may indicate when an employee is struggling at work. In study 1, we develop and establish the structure of the 20-item Signs of Struggle (SOS) checklist as comprising five factors that describe the warning signs of health impairment at work (i.e. distress, withdrawal, reduced attendance, degradations in performance, extreme behaviours). In study 2, we show that manager-rated signs of struggle correlated substantially with participant-reported strain. The SOS tool provides managers a way to recognise when employees may be struggling and could benefit from workplace resources. We recommend that for maximal benefit, managers also receive training on how to use the SOS, and also on how to approach and assist employees who are displaying warning signs.

The workaholism Battery : WorkBat
Source : Références en santé au travail (154), juin 2018

Ce document appartient à une série publiée régulièrement dans la revue. Elle analyse les questionnaires utilisés dans les démarches de diagnostic et de prévention du stress et des risques psychosociaux au travail. L’article, par les mêmes auteurs,  » Les questionnaires dans la démarche de prévention du stress au travail  » (TC 134, Doc Méd Trav. 2011 ; 125 : 23-35), présente cette série et propose au préventeur une aide pour choisir l’outil d’évaluation le mieux adapté.

Gestion et leadership

Comprendre la santé mentale, la maladie mentale et leur incidence en milieu de travail
Source : Morneau Shepell , juin 2018

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Morneau Shepell, en partenariat avec le Globe and Mail, a créé le sondage The Mental Health Experience in Canada’s Workplaces (sondage sur les expériences en santé mentale dans les milieux de travail du Canada, disponible en anglais seulement) et a incité les lecteurs à y répondre en publiant une série d’articles éclairés sur la santé mentale au travail, corédigé notamment par la présidente-directrice générale de la Commission de la santé mentale du Canada. L’objectif était de comprendre quels conseils nous pourrions donner aux employeurs pour les aider à soutenir les employés qui éprouvent des maladies et des problèmes associés à la santé mentale au travail.

Correlation between nursing managers’ leadership styles and nurses’ job stress and anticipated turnoverRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Journal of Nursing Management Prépublication(ja), août 2018

This study aims to investigate the relationship between leadership style with nurse job stress and anticipated turnover.  In this cross-sectional- correlational study, 1617 nurses were selected from the governmental hospitals in Iran 2016-2017. Results show that  laissez-faire leadership style correlated positive with job stress and anticipated turnover.  A transformational and transactional leadership style have a significant relationship with job stress and anticipated staff turnover. Authors conclude that transformational and transactional leadership styles can reduce nurse’s job stress and intention to leave, and recommend that nurse leaders use these styles to improve job satisfaction and quality of nursing services.

Relationship between leadership, bullying in the workplace, and turnover intentionRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Journal of Nursing Management Prépublication(ja), août 2018

Previous studies have demonstrated an association between leadership, bullying, and turnover intention. However, few studies to date have addressed this topic among nurses. This cross-sectional study was conducted using web-based data collection followed by data analysis. Having more than one job and a low relationship-oriented leadership style were positively associated with personal and work-related bullying, respectively. A low relationship-oriented leadership style, age of 19–29 years, and length of employment at the institution of 5–10 years were positively correlated with a high turnover intention. Authors recommend that nurse managers, in addition to developing technical skills, need to develop skills to manage human relationships to prevent bullying and turnover among nurses.

Sickness Absence of Nurses Working in Residential Elder Care: The Essential Role of Psychosocial Job Resources and Home Demandsressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)
Source : Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Prépublication, août 2018

This study aims to elucidate the role and pathways of psychosocial home demands, psychosocial home resources and psychosocial job resources in relation to sickness absence among nurses working in residential elder care. Survey data and registered sickness absence data were used. The study showed that more psychosocial job resources like ‘work schedule fit with private life’ predicted fewer psychosomatic health complaints, while more psychosocial home demands predicted more. The job resources and home demands predicted sickness absence duration and episodes one-year later mediated through nurses’ health. Greater attention to the fit of nurses’ work schedule with private life and their home demands could potentially reduce health-related sickness absence among nurses working in residential elder care.

Intimidation

The relationship between organisational change and being a perpetrator of workplace bullying: A three-wave longitudinal studyRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Work & Stress Prépublication, juillet 2018

While research has unravelled the association between organisational change and being a target of workplace bullying, scholars have still to shed light on the perpetrator perspective of this association. In the current study, we further the literature by investigating the relationship between exposure to organisational change and being a perpetrator of workplace bullying. We introduced perceptions of psychological contract breach as a mechanism that accounts for the process in which exposure to organisational change leads employees to direct bullying behaviours to other members of the organisation. Using three-wave longitudinal data from 1994 employees we estimated a between-subjects mediation model controlling for autoregressive effects. Results confirmed our hypothesis that exposure to organisational change at Time 1 was positively related to being a perpetrator of workplace bullying at Time 3 through perceptions of psychological contract breach at Time 2. These findings suggest that organisations should invest in factors that lower employees’ likelihood to perceive psychological contract breach in the aftermath of organisational change because these perceptions may indeed result in the enactment of workplace bullying towards other members of the organisation.

Outils numériques

Effectiveness of a digital platform-based implementation strategy to prevent work stress in a healthcare organization: a 12-month follow-up controlled trial
Source : Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health Prépublication, juillet 2018

The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a digital platform-based implementation strategy – compared to a control group – on stress, psychosocial work factors, and the level of implementation among healthcare workers. 30 teams from a healthcare organization were assigned to the experimental  or wait-list control group. In total, 210 participants completed the baseline questionnaire and at least one follow-up questionnaire. The strategy showed potential for primary prevention of work stress, mainly explained by an increase in stress in the control group that was prevented in the experimental group.

Process Evaluation of a Digital Platform-Based Implementation Strategy Aimed at Work Stress Prevention in a Health Care Organisationressource disponible par abonnement (réseau ASSTSAS / CNESST)
Source : Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Publish Ahead of Print, août 2018

The objective was to evaluate the process and feasibility of a digital platform-based implementation strategy aimed at work stress prevention. The process evaluation was performed alongside a controlled trial within a health care organisation, in the experimental group (N = 221). Mental models, context, and barriers and facilitators were measured. In addition, dose delivered, reach, and dose received were assessed. Strategy implementation was moderately successful, as sustained strategy use by the teams appeared to be a challenge. The strategy can be feasible with sufficient management support and resources.

Personnel infirmier

Nurse Suicide: Breaking the Silence
Source : NAM Perspectives 8(1), 2018

The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of and begin to build an open dialogue regarding nurse suicide. Recent exposure to nurse suicide raised our awareness and concern, but it was disarming to find no organization-specific, local, state, or national mechanisms in place to track and report the number or context of nurse suicides in the United States. This paper describes our initial exploration as we attempted to uncover what is known about the prevalence of nurse suicide in the United States. Our goal is to break through the culture of silence regarding suicide among nurses so that realistic and accurate appraisals of risk can be established and preventive measures can be developed.

Ontario adds nurses to the work-related PTSD presumption under Workplace Safety and Insurance Act | Canadian Safety Reporter
Source : Canadian Safety Reporter , juillet 2018

Front-line healthcare workers join emergency response workers, police as occupations not needing causal link to PTSD and workplace event to receive benefits

Resilience in nursing: The role of internal and external factorsRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Journal of Nursing Management Prépublication, juillet 2018

Recent evidence shows that resilience can buffer the negative impact of workplace stressors on nurses and is linked to favourable patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine and compare the impact of individual characteristics, external factors and coping strategies on nurses’ resilience. Resilience, anxiety and depression, were measured among 1012 Greek nurses working in eight hospitals, using existing validated self- report instruments. Educational level, anxiety and the overall use of mental preparation strategies were the main predictors of nurse’s resilience. Resilient nurses were better educated, had lower anxiety, and used more often mental preparation strategies before the beginning of their shift.

Stress

Interventions to promote mental health in nursing students: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsRessource en accès restreint (acheter à l'éditeur ou demandez un prêt entre bibliothèques)
Source : Journal of Advanced Nursing Prépublication, juillet 2018

Recent research has demonstrated mental disorders in common among nursing students and may lead to adverse consequences like low self-efficacy and poor academic performance. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to examine the efficacy of interventions aimed at improving nursing students’ mental health and to identify which form was effective. Twelve studies with a total sample size of 651 participants met the inclusion criteria. The results of subgroup analysis showed that depression benefits more from psychotherapy, anxiety benefits from psychotherapy and non-psychotherapy. Interventions were effective in managing stress and systolic blood pressure. Improvements on self-efficacy and diastolic blood pressure were not observed.

Le stress au travail, première cause des problèmes de santé mentale
Source : Le Journal de Montréal , juillet 2018

Les travailleurs canadiens sont d’avis que le stress au travail est la principale cause des problèmes de santé mentale, selon une enquête.

What’s the difference between good and bad stress?
Source : Canadian Occupational Safety,

This video looks at the difference between good and bad stress and proposes steps to take to mitigate bad stress in the workplace.

Maîtriser le stress en milieu de travail
Source : CCHST: Le rapport sur la santé et la sécurité 16(7), juillet 2018

Un milieu de travail sain favorise la santé et le bien-être de ses employés et s’efforce de les protéger des préjudices psychologiques, y compris le stress. Un livre blanc publié récemment par Morneau-Shepell et la Commission de la santé mentale du Canada révèle que plus du tiers (34 %) des Canadiens citent le stress au travail comme étant la principale cause de leurs problèmes de santé mentale. Comme beaucoup d’autres problèmes relatifs à la santé mentale, le stress est souvent mal compris ou stigmatisé. Cependant, s’il est traité comme un problème organisationnel plutôt que comme un défaut individuel, le stress peut être tout aussi gérable que les autres risques pour la santé et la sécurité au travail.

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